Saturday, March 14, 2020

Consumerism in Cloning the Consumer Culture by Noreene Janus

Consumerism in Cloning the Consumer Culture by Noreene Janus Definition and significance Consumerism refers to the process of creating and retaining the urge to buy goods and services in larger volumes in a socially and economically accepted order. It can be a crucial and vital process in the growth of the economy of a country particularly in developing countries .In his article Consumerism Dr Ashfaque H Khan attributes Pakistan’s sturdy economic growth that span for a period of five years (between 2003 and 2007) to the process of consumerism.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Consumerism in â€Å"Cloning the Consumer Culture† by Noreene Janus specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The country’s growth was reportedly at 7% per annum on average for the whole period. This effect is due to the fact that consumerism takes up a share of between seventy and seventy five percent of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). During this particular period it was close to 72 percent . Sixty percent of India’s GDP also depends on consumption and is projected to increase by the year 2025 (Khan 1). How it works The process by which consumerism increases and retains the growth momentum is a consequence of the linkage between the growth of the economy, increase in the per capita income, raising consuption, increase in retail space and popularization of products. Khan explains that increased economic growth causes an alteration in the consumption pattern through the upsurge in per capita income. Weakening of laws prohibiting entry international products results in flooding of the domestic market with international products. The consumers become more informed and begin experimenting with the different showcased products in the increased retail store spaces. However, in â€Å"Cloning the Consumer Culture: How International Marketing Sells the Western Lifestyle†, Noreene Janus argues that the economic status of the consumers will greatly influence their pu rchasing power or interest. Khan proceeds to say that the growing consumer appetite encourages greater investments in manufacturing equipment and growth of the service industry such as real estate. The increased investments create more job opportunities which in turn increase the amount of disposable income available for the prospective customers. This act of consumption thus propels the private sector to expand in order to satisfy the now enormous demand. Despite criticism the method has been italicized by countries such as Indonesia and Vietnam making them a darling of the international markets (Khan 2). Relation between consumerism and religion In order to understand how to increase consumption of a product we have to know how these brands act as religion. An anonymous article in the Financial Times refers to modern day products as the new religion. Religion refers to what one believes in that influences how they relate with others.Advertising Looking for essay on busines s economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is meant to satisfy a psychological want of openly showing one’s self-worth just as brand dependence. Regions where people are more religious and ardent church goers’ products such as Apple which are brand name stores are bound to perform dismally. This is attributed to the fact that religious people tend to shy away from nation-brands of self-expressive goods but purchase tendencies remain the same for functional products. Atheists due to lack of a religion tend to take brand names as their religion whereas the religious people already have something to believe in thus they do not value these products. A perfect instance s is that of the Apple Inc. customers who viewed Steve Jobs as their ‘messiah’ while extending hostility to their ‘evil advisory’, Microsoft’s Bill Gates or HP’s Hewlett Packard. Therefore by understanding its consumers a country can influence the effect of consumerism to its economy’s advantage by selectively liberalizing the different market types or international product brand-names. The advertisements will be viewed as the missionaries of the brand-religion. How to promote consumerism According Andrew Lam assertions in his article, â€Å"Closing of Age in a Changing Nation†, the West has a great influence on Vietnam. People view such places as America as the places with the magical spar in life. Hollywood films are being watched and several people such as Nguyen want to take their loved ones to the United States (103). This is due to what they have seen in adverts on the newspapers and television sets. We can take advantage of these to promote consumerism. Janus says that there exists a transnational culture in the use of products such as automobiles, watching of Hollywood movies, shopping malls that generate the homely feeling irrespective of whichever part of the world one is in. The current global culture is a consequence of slight but spontaneous developments that relied entirely on technological advances, augmented international trade and air travels. Forging customers Transactional culture is based on the consumption of a product and relies on advertising to pass the message of ingestion in a simple but understandable way. According to Janus, an advertiser is supposed to rely on the positives such as excitement, youth, status or fashion while avoiding the resultant social incongruities, class variances or workplace disagreements. Consumer freedom of choice should be offered as an alternative to political democracy. The advertiser should capitalize on the fact that the only means of self-expression for social change available to a great majority of the people is the freedom to choose between varieties of products. Transnational culture will only hold once the local cultural differences are done away with.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Consumerism in â€Å"Cloning the Consumer Culture† by Noreene Janus specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Engaging in a global marketing strategy where a similar advertising message is used in all the countries is an effective method. Targeting the poor families in the 3rd world countries in the advertising campaigns is also bound to bear fruit as these people can contribute money amongst themselves to raise the required amounts. Use of global media A crucial factor in the creation of the transnational culture is the swiftness and the scope of transmission of the intended advert through media such as television, newspapers and magazines. A company should therefore ensure these media convey the adverts appropriately particularly in television which is efficient with illiterate people. This is according to Greys Advertising International in Janus’ article advertising using such media may alter the thinking of the customers. For example, when light-skin products are advertised through television they persuade African women to hate their completion and try to be white. These way breaching products are sold to these women. Governments and consumerism The Government of the day plays a vital role in promotion or limitation of consumerism in their country. According to Khan and Lam Vietnam government has promoted the process by allowing sales of international products to its citizens indiscriminately. For India the last decade has seen its GDP grow at an average of 7 percent and the per capita income rise by two points lower. This can be attributed to the increased middle class who have in turn raised the demand higher. Through this, the government has recognized the importance of developing consumerism and brand-awareness as ingredient maintaining high economic growth. To nurture this more, the government came up a retail FDI policy five years ago that has greatly benefited the foreign retail ers such as Rino Greggio (Argentina). This policy does not only boost the consumption rate it also sets India apart from other countries of the world. The steady economic growth of China over the last thirty years has witnessed expansion of the middle class purchasing power making it the leading consumer market in the world. According to Khan China also has the second largest number of luxury goods consumers in the world (2). In order to uphold this, the government has a 5-year plan being one of its priorities. Moreover, other nations are beginning to value the role of consumerism in their economic growth and are putting measures in place in readiness. Conclusion Consumerism can be used as a way of encouraging and supporting economic growth for any nation as discussed above. It can also be used as a measure of the standards of livings of the people while mirroring the resilient middle class in the economy. The aim of any government is to upgrade the standards of living of its people . When used appropriately consumerism can serve as diligent tool for that goal. Were it not for consumerism, India would not be a member of the elite G-20 group (Khan 2).Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Professionals who undermine the usefulness of this process end upbringing down the economies of their countries. A good example is Pakistan whose economic growth was diminished due to false advice by ‘professionals’ who undermined its usefulness. Countries such as Vietnam should do more to promote consumerism in order to improve the living standards of their people rather than using its resources to restrict the freedom of speech of its people. Khan, Ashfaque, H. â€Å"Consumerism.† The News. 04 October. 2011. 17 October. 2011. https://www.thenews.com.pk/archive/print/324568-consumerism Lam, Andrew. Perfume Dreams. Berkeley: Heyday Books, 2005. Print.

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Using Your Manager Skills Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1

Using Your Manager Skills - Research Paper Example First is the definition of the words used in defining the act pollutant, point source, navigable waters, and person (Manheim, 2009). Pollutant represents the solid waste, sewage, sewage sludge, biological materials, municipal, industrial, agricultural, discarded equipment and other forms of waste dumped into the water. The point source defines pipes, vessels, or containers from which pollutants are discharged. Navigable waters are water surfaces including wetlands whether or not water vessels use them. Finally, person defines corporations, government agencies, and actual people that may dump waste in water (Manheim, 2009). Secondly, the meaning of â€Å"in compliance† with the clean water act is also fundamental in understanding the act. It means that before an individual releases waste into the water, he or she must receive approval from the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (Ferrey, 2010). The permit provided by the agency is dependent on the individual’s waste components in accordance with the effluent limitations. The effluent limitations are limits that determine the amount and type of pollutant that can be put in a particular mass of water (Buck, 2006). This ensures that the waste dumped in particular water masses does not have a negative impact on the people that use the water. It uses technology-based standards to determine the best existing technology that every industry can use to control water contamination. For instance, it ensures that an individual has treated the waste and reduce pollutants in the water as much as possible. Additionally, the agency determines whether a particular water surface can handle any more waste products or not. Solid Waste Disposal Act deals with solid waste disposal. Solid waste includes refuse, garbage, industrial waste, and sludge from waste treatment plants. The act aims to reduce solid waste contamination in the environment by developing cost-effective and environmentally

Monday, February 10, 2020

Critically assess the theoretical and practical debates about Essay

Critically assess the theoretical and practical debates about stakeholding focussing either on the basic income or asset aspects. Address the issues in the context of a particular society of your choice - Essay Example The concept of stakeholding stipulates that every citizen upon attainment of an adulthood age, 21 years as proposed by Ackerman and Alstott, should receive a considerable lump sum one-time grant from the government. The amount given should be sufficient to qualify one as a significant wealth owner. Ackerman and Alstott recommended that the amount should total $80,000 in the United States (Ackerman et al, 2006). This essay is aimed at critically assessing the theoretical and practical debates concerning stakeholders grant in relation to basic income or assets. The Presented discussion will be addressed in the context of African American society in the United States. The need for contemporary public policies has been necessitated by the transformative nature of the current labour market. Sherraden (2005) argued that market risks no longer impact directly on collective intermediary, government and insurance institutions but affects individuals and consequently their families. The current framework of social welfare has proved ineffective as witnessed from the deterioration of means tested program systems and lack of will by the governing institutions. Therefore, Ackerman and Alstott noted that the introduction of stakeholding would lead to progressive redistribution of wealth among members of the society (Ackerman et al, 2006). According to Paxton and White (2005), social policy campaign by egalitarian crusaders of has been focused on the redistribution of resource ownership. Proponents of stakeholding as form of social policy argues that highly privileged individuals inherit wealth from their parents while children from poor backgrounds are like ly to continue languishing due to absence of inheritance. In such a scenario, underprivileged African Americans have been left without prerequisite resources to attend colleges and universities. Arguments by Ackerman and Alstott have been evidenced by the extent of income disparity between

Thursday, January 30, 2020

The Belize Barrier Reef Essay Example for Free

The Belize Barrier Reef Essay The Belize Barrier Reef Andrea G. Milbourne SCI 230 June 20, 2010 The Belize Barrier Reef is the second largest barrier reef in the world next to one found in Australia. The reef is Belizes number one tourist attraction. It is home to many different ocean life forms. The reef is in danger of being destroyed. Humans and the rising temperature of the ocean are factors of the reefs danger. There are many conservation groups that are trying to help preserve the reef and its habitants. The barrier reef is 186 miles in length and is 1,000 ft off-shore in the north and 25 iles to the south of the country of Belize. The Belize reef has particularly high species diversity for the region, with about 65 coral species and over 300 fish species. The fish species include sharks, sea turtles, finfish, sponges, tuna, and many more Just to name a few. These species coincide together to produce the reef. Many of the species need one another for food to survive. Larger species tend to feed of smaller ones and the left over materials from the fish are ingested by the smaller species. The Reef is still yet to be fully explored by humans. It is said that there is still ninety percent of the Belize Barrier reef that has yet to be explored by humans. The greatest damage comes from sedimentation, agrochemical run-off, coastal development, tourism and overfishing. Humans destroy the natural habitat of the reef by disturbing it and leaving trash and toxic materials in and around the reef. The reef also sustains damage from overfishing and large commercial fishing boats that try to fish in the shallow parts of the reef. Some large corporations dump oxic chemicals near the reef threatening the wildlife of the reef. There are banana farms near the reef that are quite large. They use fertilizer that helps the bananas to grow. The run off of fertilizer used to grow these bananas is going to the reef and killing the species in it, as well as, the reef itself. The development of hotels and housing affects the reef by cutting into it and disturbing the natural state of the reef. When the country builds developments like this next to the reef it brings more humans to the area to disturb the reef even more. Another reason for the reef being in danger is the fact that the ocean temperature is rising. This causes bleaching of the coral and other parts of the reef. Hurricanes provide damage to the reef every year and it takes time for the reef to naturally repair itself from these damages. While the reef is repairing itself from these natural disasters, the humans cause damage that is irreversible and the reef cannot fully restore itself to normal. The country of Belize does not want to destroy this amazing reef, but it uses the reef for income. The same things that are helping countrys economic system are destroying the reef right before their eyes. The country of Belize tries to educate the visitors and its public as to how to try to help keep the reef clean. There are foundation is a group that is trying to help the Belize government in preserving the Belize Barrier Reef. They have Joined Belize in educating the country and the tourists about the reef and how to protect it. They also educate the businesses around the area to help them take steps in preserving the reef. The UN foundation accepts onations from the public and businesses to give them the resources for the conservation effort. They also help with trying to get legislation passed to protect the reef and the countrys economy. The country of Belize and the conservation groups have already made parts of the reef national parks. Some areas of the reef have also been closed to the public and are considered land preserves so no one is allowed to enter these areas. These steps have helped save portions of the reef from destruction. The reef still needs help to survive. As an individual person you could elp by donating time to the conservation effort. Or by visiting the reef, take care not to disturb the natural habitat of the species living in it. These conservation groups dont want to stop tourism, they Just want educated tourists enjoying one of the worlds amazing places and keep around for many years to come. I think we could all voice our opinion about how we could do our part in the preservation of the reef. If you cant visit the reef or donate to the preservation, you can Join conservation groups and help from you country. There is always the internet. You can give your support to a conservation group of your choice through the internet. There is always something you can do to help the effort. If the barrier reef is not preserved then it will be destroyed. All of the species will not be able to survive and it will affect the area around the reef. The country of Belize will not have the reef for economic purposes. The country may not survive itself without the reef and its species. The fishermen who fish the reef would not have employment. There may be some ocean ife that can only survive in the reef that will be destroyed that we may not even know about. There also will not be a tourist attraction to visit anymore. This would be a big loss to the country and the world around us. I myself have never heard about the Belize Barrier Reef until I received this assignment. I would like to visit the reef one day. I would also like to look for a conservation group that I could Join and do my part to preserve one of the worlds amazing places. References Terracurve (2009) Help protect the Belize Barrier Reef with the support of the United

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Viva La Revolution :: essays research papers

Viva La Revolution   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  What would it take to stir up the courage to bear arms against the government? The courage remains hidden for now. But when the time is right, when the future becomes the present, and the scene is set the courage of the people will shine true. This scene must be set to trigger the emotion and release the nationalism. Some occurrences that could stir the needed courage, regardless of the consequences, would be, in my eyes, perhaps the reinstatement of the Draft’s Board or any dictatorship actions performed by the government. A revolt could take place even at a simple rise of taxes.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The Drafts Board remained in use through many wars. But these wars and these ways of thinking are behind the American people. And perhaps behind the thinking of the American Government also. And if it were by some sick twist of fate ever reinstated many veterans and others would be bound to take a stand. The young people of America deserve their right to chose if they want to defend their country in war. The very freedom they have been chosen to protect would be gone. Therefore they must retain their right to chose. Our country was created by the struggle of a common people for a democratic government. And who in their right mind would not fight to keep their right to choose the leader of their country. That is what a democracy is about. If the American people decided to just let the government standardize us into certain categories we would be denying the honor of those who died to give us our individuality in the first place. Our government defends those who are caught in a dictatorship political structure, then the people must defend themselves from being in need of defense like those who we currently aide. In this situation Americans would have nearly no choice but to defend themselves by revolting. As the saying goes, only two things in life are certain, death and taxes. Although taxes may seem like petty reasoning for taking up arms, it deserves more contemplation. It was a constant raise of taxes that began the revolt by Americans against the English government in the origin of our fine country.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Comment of the effectiveness to the novel Essay

There are many stories conveyed in chapter 3, some stories are more prominent than others. The most obvious story is that of Joe’s, as he is the narrator of the novel. Joe’s story follows one that is direct to his perception. This presents the reader with a biased account of what happened, and each character’s behaviour as it is based primarily on Joe’s interpretation. Following on from this idea , there is a sense of scepticism introduced into the reader’s mind, it casts seeds of doubt on the story Joe is telling, it makes it seem distorted through Joe. In chapter 3 the reader is introduced to a primitive, or selfish aspect to Joe’s nature, this is presented through the referral to Joe’s needs, not Clarissa’s or anyone else’s but simply Joe’s, â€Å"I couldn’t yet bear to talk about it†. Through Joe’s story many others are told, those of his past and the present and these stories engulf the reader into how McEwan incorporates characters, informs of their life and background, while doing this creatively, subtly. Joe tells a story of his past, a story of humiliation and nervousness, this story is full of emotions, it re-emphasises the detachment Joe has made from his emotions over the years, or rather that if an event occurs at the present, emotions are stripped away from it, until it becomes bearable, and therefore in the past. Clarissa has been in the background of the story, only becoming important through Joe’s thoughts, now however she becomes a focal point in chapter 3. This is captured in the commentary or Joe and Clarissa throughout the duration of the chapter, Joe is the narrator, therefore the other crux of the chapter is clearly Clarissa. Clarissa is described to be doing the necessary practical things at the beginning of this chapter, as is Joe, such as they are doing jobs that must be done when returning home, â€Å"Clarissa carried her luggage into the bedroom† . Joe initially separates his story from Clarissa’s, giving her more focus and also detachment from him, his guilt and therefore emotions. Clarissa is portrayed from the opening of the novel to be a character able to feel and understand her emotions, contrastingly to Joe’s nature. Clarissa is a character who forms attachments, due to her emotional and caring attributes, that exist as part of her. Clarissa is haunted by the tragedy that she cannot have children, this provides the reader with a sense of sympathy for Clarissa, it also uncovers another element of Clarissa’s background. This can be transferred to the way in which Clarissa focuses on the death of Logan, and his children being left alone. This element of the novel creates scepticism for both Joe and Clarissa, The reader doubts Joe’s ability to be unbiased, while the reader is sceptical of Clarissa’s ability to control and segment her emotions, what is extended in this idea is that Clarissa blames Joe for her inability to have children, she resents him for not giving her the one thing that lingers in her mind, the one thing the two of them together cannot overcome. This is depicted in the novel through the repetition and reference to Logan being a good man, â€Å"He had children of his own, He wouldn’t let go†. This phrase used by McEwan can infer that Clarissa thinks Joe is not a â€Å"good man† because he let go of the rope, and this is due to him not having an emotional attachment to children, as they cannot have any together. Within the two main stories, that are Joe and Clarissa’s there come sub-stories, tales that reiterate and construct experiences for the characters. Within Joe’s story we receive Clarissa’s but also Jed’s. Jed is depicted as that of a manipulative yet religious man, although in chapter 3 the reader is only building knowledge of him, it is clear that Jed ultimately indulges a new story. Cotrastingly Clarissa brings in the story of a friend, someone she knows and trusts, Majorie becomes introduced to the story as a friend of Clarissa’s who lost a young baby through a bacterial infection, while this increases the wealther of knowledge of Clarissa, it also provides the information of Majorie. The combination of Joe and clarissa’s stories result in background tales of Logan, and his family. While they also divulege into their past, their experiences, Joe’s interlude of playing a trumpet on stage, a story of humiliation and embarrassment. Clarissa’s story of conern, anticipation and childhood naivety developed through the channel of a girl going missing whilst on holiday.

Monday, January 6, 2020

Racial Segregation - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 4 Words: 1200 Downloads: 6 Date added: 2019/10/31 Category Politics Essay Level High school Tags: Segregation Essay Did you like this example? Racial segregation is an issue that still exists in some parts of united states of united states of America for instance in Birmingham. Racial segregation is practice and habit of restricting or even prohibiting certain race of people to a given region or also separating institutions like churches, schools and hospitals as well as facilities like playgrounds, parks restrooms and restaurants from skin color pigment. The segregation of race gives certain race more economic advantage and superiority of social status more than the others. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Racial Segregation" essay for you Create order For instance in the USA the whites population are more dormant, and they ranked themselves very high than the African Americans. The opposition to racial segregation has led various black activists to be jailed since they organize nonviolent demonstrations. The paper critically analyses the document that was written by Martin Luther king Jr.at Birmingham jail. The document Letter from a Birmingham Jail (King, Jr.) was written by Martin Luther King, Jr. when he was jailed at Birmingham, and the letter was written on April 16th, 1963. State authorities arrested Martin Luther King, Jr. After organizing a nonviolent demonstration that was meant to eliminate the impunity that the Negro was experiencing from the whites. Luther together with other activists waited for a very long time for things to change in Birmingham by addressing the issue the issue of racial segregation that was predominant in the region. Martin Luther King Jr. wrote the letter to his fellow clergymen to create more awareness on the subject of racial discrimination, and also he wanted to justify that what he did of organizing nonviolent demonstration was not something illegal since he was fighting for Negros rights and freedoms. The letter wrote by Martin Luther King Jr. is still exist in most of the American libraries since it marks the journey of Americans how they have evolved since the time in 1963 the racial segregation was an issue to today where such cases are rare. The document was created as a result of issue of racial discrimination and injustices that the Negros undergo on the hands of the white, and it was evidenced by the fact that African American children were not allowed to play in the playgrounds and park that were meant for white children, blacks have experienced unfair judgments in federal courts, as well as some of the Negros churches and homes, were bombed yet the cases remained unsolved. The letter clearly illustrates how life was in Birmingham in 1963, the life of Negros was not that much good sense, and their compatriots whites racially discriminated them. They were deprived of justice in courts as well they undergone a lot of humiliation in front of their masters Whites. For instance, they were not respected since the whites used to call some of them by referring their first name as Nigger second names as boy as well as black women were also not respected because there was no use of the word like Mrs. as supposed to be. Secondly, people lived based on racial segregation, certain areas were meant only for whites, and the Negros were prohibited in such areas. Other areas like schools, churches, and parks were also separated based on races. For instance, children of Negros were not allowed to play in parks instead they were referred to go to Fulton streets where blacks lived. The first thing that the Martin Luther King Jr. said to support its fight for freedom of Negros was that oppressed individuals could not remain oppressed forever. The statement is compelling and it a source that incited more Negros to rise and fight for their rights and freedom. It clearly shows that when an oppressor is tired of humiliations and injustices, the oppressed is going to react even if it is through breaking the laws to be heard. For instance, Martin together with other Negros after waiting for long for leaders and government to address the issue of unfair treatments and the parties failed, they took the matter into their own hands by organizing the demonstrations to be heard. The second statement that formed the basis of Luther actions was that freedom is not given voluntarily by oppressors; freedom must be demanded by the victimized. Therefore, when all peaceful ways of addressing the issues of injustices all failed, it was advisable for Negros to use force in their campaigns to be heard and their impact to be felt. However, the consequence of using force led to being arrested by police officers and charged for their misconducts, but the effect of the demonstration led to the awareness of the need to change. The third statement that formed the basis of the argument was that sometimes on the face of view law is just but unjust where it is applied. For instance, it is illegal to conduct any violent actions like demonstrations since the law prohibits, however, when demonstrations the only call to stop the unfairness, it would be unjust to charge those individuals who participated in the demonstration in advocating their rights. Nevertheless, the law will find them guilty since it is illegal to use violence in protests. The overall significance of the letter is that it informs us we have to remain bold and courageous in fighting the impunity that is existing in our society. Secondly, racial segregation always brings conflicts, and unless the community addresses the issue, there will be constant fights between races. Finally, sometimes is advisable to use force in fighting for justice especially when all the nonviolent techniques have failed. The documents have left a lot of question to be answered, the documents have not shown the reader whether the Martin together with his allies were given their freedom or not, secondly the document failed to answer the question who was the God of the Negros and lastly, the document was unable to explain how the letter reached the clergymen. The critical historical event that was taking place at this time was fighting for injustices that Negros experiences that were brought as results of racial segregation. Similarly, it marks the need for American society to emphasize on equality on both races. The document fits very well in the topic of America History and in the unit that takes about race and racial segregation. It compliments what I have learned in that it shows some of the racial segregations that African Americans underwent and the course of alarm to change the situation. In conclusion, racial segregation is something that in the past used to be a significant issue affecting American society, However, in todays society the problem still exist but at the lower level. In the past black communities were the most people who were affected by racial segregations and some who fought for their rights found themselves on the wrong side of the law. Therefore, for peaceful coexistence in our society, the issue of racial segregation must be addressed adequately. Bibliography King Jr, Martin Luther. Letter from Birmingham jail. UC Davis L. Rev. 26 (1992): 835. Lloyd, Vincent W. Love, Justice, and Natural Law: On Martin Luther King, Jr. and Human Rights. Human Rights from a Third World Perspective. Springs, Jason A. The Cultural Violence of Non-violence. Journal of Mediation Applied Conflict Analysis 3, no. 1 (2016): 382-396.